3). A) and Selamectin B) Cutaneous coockiecutter shark (spp.) with exposure of hyperemic and inflamed dermis and blubber. Bar: 1 cm. C) Cutaneous coockiecutter shark bite with exposed dermis and blubber. This picture is of particular interest because had not this animal being alive, this bite would likely be conservatively considered inflicted post mortem due to insufficient evidences (i.e., hyperemia, hemorrhage, edema, inflammatory exudate). Hence, antemortem bites are likely to be underdiagnosed in regular cetacean autopsies. Bar: 1 cm. D) Cutaneous tiger shark (antigens. (DOCX) pone.0194872.s005.docx (27K) GUID:?F9565245-D176-4A70-A783-92037CB271AC S3 Table: Main gross and histologic findings in calf humpback whales stranded in Brazil (2004C2016). (DOCX) pone.0194872.s006.docx (23K) GUID:?7563DE89-0F27-494A-B91E-ABA418520E13 S4 Table: Main gross and histologic findings in juvenile and adult humpback whales stranded in Brazil (2004C2016). (DOCX) pone.0194872.s007.docx (16K) GUID:?5F7E22FD-48D3-4DAB-B962-C456C12EB553 Data Availability StatementThe material used in this Selamectin study is deposited in the Marine Mammal Tissue Bank held by Laboratory of Wildlife Comparative Pathology, University of S?o Paulo, Brazil. Interested researchers can send data access requests to Jos Luiz Cat?o-Dias, head of the Laboratory of Wildlife Comparative Pathology where the marine mammal tissue bank is maintained, at the following email address: rb.psu@oatacez. Abstract This study describes the pathologic findings of 24 humpback whales (found stranded along the Brazilian coast from 2004 to 2016. Eighteen (75%) animals evaluated were found stranded alive. From these, 13 died naturally on shore and five were euthanized. Six died at sea and were washed ashore. Of the 24, 19 (79.2%) were calves, four (16.7%) were juveniles, and one (4.2%) was an adult. The most probable cause of stranding and/or death (CSD) was determined in 23/24 (95.8%) individuals. In calves, CSD included neonatal respiratory distress (13/19; 68.4%), infectious disease (septicemia, omphaloarteritis and urachocystitis; 3/19; 15.8%), trauma of unknown origin (2/19; 10.5%), and vehicular trauma (vessel strike; 1/19; 5.3%). In juveniles and adult individuals, CSD was: emaciation (2/5; 40%), sunlight-thermal burn shock (1/5; 20%); and discospondylitis (1/5; 20%). In one juvenile, the CSD was undetermined (1/5; 20%). This study integrates novel findings and published case reports to delineate the pathology of a South-western Atlantic population of humpback whales. This foundation will aid in the assessment of the population health and establish a Selamectin baseline for development of conservation policies. Introduction Humpback whales (and morbillivirus antigen was performed on selected tissue sections (S2 Table). Commercially available mouse monoclonal antibody solution against canine distemper virus nucleoprotein antigen (1:100; VMRD Inc, Pullman, WA)  and goat polyclonal anti-antiserum solution (1:400; VMRD Inc)  were used as primary antibodies. Brain from a morbillivirus-positive  Guiana Rabbit Polyclonal to SH2D2A dolphin (and were isolated from blowhole and bronchial exudate. In animal no. 23 and 24 (Fig 1C), omphalitis, umbilical arteritis and urachocystitis with intralesional gram-negative bacilli were accompanied Selamectin by systemic congestion, hemorrhages and occasional thrombosis, along with multicentric lymphoid depletion, erythrocytosis and erythrophagocytosis. In animal no.23, two 1C2 cm in diameter, well-demarcated, pale tan nodules centered on large descending branches of the right coronary artery were noted grossly (Fig 1D). Histologically, these nodules consisted of aneurysmal coronary segments with markedly thickened walls composed of moderately disorganized tunica media and subintimal collagen and elastin bundles with proliferating myofibroblasts, along with myxedema and intimal luminal projections, as suggested by Massons trichrome and Verhoeffs staining. No inflammation was observed. These histologic features were compatible with congenital coronary artery fibromuscular dysplasia . Non-predatory trauma was incriminated as the CSD Selamectin in two animals (animal no. 18 and 19) [37,38]. Lesions associated were: severe hemothorax and hemorrhage spanning the intercostal musculature and the parietal pleura, associated with two simple short-oblique proximal rib fractures (4th and 5th ribs on left side) (animal no. 18); and epidural and subarachnoid cervical hemorrhage, hemoperitoneum, and pulmonary hemorrhage and edema (animal no. 19). Animal no.11 (advanced autolysis) presented multifocal hematomas in the head, nuchal region, dorsum, right lateral flank and peduncle, and right flipper; distal amputation of the right flipper; and three deep, linear and parallel cutaneous lacerations, highly supportive of a propeller cut (vessel strike), in the left flank, caudally to the flipper and cranially to the dorsal fin. These propeller-inflicted cutaneous incisions (cranio-caudal decreasing length) involved: a 49 cm-long anterior section [regular edges, dorso-ventral orientation, slight cranio-caudal tilt, approximately 45 degrees angle with body axis] that penetrated into.